Source code for pypercard.core

"""
This module contains the core classes and functions used by PyperCard to
create a GUI stack of cards that transition to each other via button presses.

Copyright (c) 2019 Nicholas Tollervey.

Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:

The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in all
copies or substantial portions of the Software.

THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT. IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN THE
SOFTWARE.
"""
import kivy

kivy.require("1.11.1")
import json
import struct
from .colours import COLOURS
from enum import Enum
from kivy.app import App
from kivy.clock import Clock
from kivy.core.audio import SoundLoader
from kivy.core.window import Window
from kivy.graphics import Rectangle, Color
from kivy.uix.boxlayout import BoxLayout
from kivy.uix.button import Button
from kivy.uix.label import Label
from kivy.uix.screenmanager import ScreenManager, Screen, FadeTransition
from kivy.uix.slider import Slider
from kivy.uix.textinput import TextInput
from kivy.uix.togglebutton import ToggleButton


[docs]def palette(name): """ Given a name of a colour (e.g. "red", "green", "blue"), a hex value (e.g. "0xFFAACC") or an HTML hex value (e.g. "#FFAACC"), returns a tuple containing the colours converted to Kivy's own colour coding system. For a list of all the available colours see the keys in the colours.py module. :param str name: The name of the colour whose value is needed. :return: The colour expressed as a tuple of numbers used by Kivy. :raises ValueError: if the name of the colour is unknown. """ def from_hex(val): """ Given a raw HEX value (e.g. "FFAACC"), convert it to the colour encoding used by Kivy. """ r, g, b = struct.unpack("BBB", bytes.fromhex(name)) return (r // 255.0, g // 255.0, b // 255.0) if name.lower() in COLOURS: return COLOURS[name.lower()] elif name.startswith("0x"): # Convert from hex to Kivy colour. name = name[2:] return from_hex(name) elif name.startswith("#"): # Convert from HTML hex to Kivy colour. name = name[1:] return from_hex(name) else: raise ValueError("No such colour called {}".format(name))
[docs]class Inputs(Enum): """ Defines the available types of form control. Only one form control can appear in each card. """ TEXTBOX = 1 #: A single line text box. TEXTAREA = 2 #: A multi-line text area. MULTICHOICE = 3 #: A multi-choice selection. SELECT = 4 #: A single choice selection. SLIDER = 5 #: A slider with a numeric min, max and step.
[docs]class Card: """ Represents a "card" in the application. This is a node in a series of possible UI states. Transitions between states are generally facilitated by button presses with either an associated string containing the title of the target card, or a function (containing "business logic") which returns a string identifying the next card. Each node has pre-defined attributes which describe the appearance of the card and the behaviour for transitioning to other cards in the application. These are set and verified upon initialisation. :param str title: The unique meaningful title/id of the card. :param str text: The textual content of the card. :param str text_color: The colour of the textual content of the card. :param int text_size: The font size of the textual content of the card. :param Inputs form: The form input element to display on the card. :param tuple options: The form input element's multiple options. :param str sound: The path to the sound file to play with the card. :param bool sound_repeat: A flag to indicate if the card's sound loops. :param str background: Either a colour or path to background image. :param list buttons: A list containing button definitions as dictionaries containing label and transition attributes with optional text_size, text_color and background_color attributes. :param float auto_advance: The number of seconds to wait before advancing to the auto_target card. :param auto_target: Either a string or function returning a string referencing the target card for auto-advancement. :raises ValueError: If the states passed in are inconsistent. """ def __init__( self, title, text=None, text_color=None, text_size=48, form=None, options=None, sound=None, sound_repeat=False, background=None, buttons=None, auto_advance=0, auto_target=None, ): """ Initialise and check the state of the Card. Will raise an exception if the passed in state is inconsistent. """ self.title = title if text_color is None: self.text_color = palette("white") if isinstance(text_color, str): self.text_color = palette(text_color) if isinstance(background, str): try: # Check if / use when the background is the name of a colour. background = palette(background) except ValueError: # Assume the background string is a reference to an image file. pass if buttons is None: buttons = [] self.text = text self.text_size = text_size self.form = form self.options = options self.sound = sound self.sound_repeat = sound_repeat self.background = background self.buttons = buttons self.auto_advance = auto_advance self.auto_target = auto_target # Will contain references to any buttons used by the card. self.button_widgets = [] # Will become a reference to any scheduled auto advance transition. self.auto_event = None self._verify() def _verify(self): """ Ensure the combination of attributes given for this card are compatible and valid. Will raise a helpful exception if there are problems. :raises ValueError: if inconsistencies in the form's attributes are found. """ if self.form and not self.text: # A form MUST have a descriptive textual label (instructions). raise ValueError(f"Card '{self.title}' must have a form label.") if self.form == Inputs.MULTICHOICE or self.form == Inputs.SELECT: # There must be an options list for multichoice or select forms. if isinstance(self.options, tuple) or isinstance( self.options, list ): # All options must be strings. if not all(isinstance(item, str) for item in self.options): raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' form options must be strings." ) else: raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' form must have an options list." ) if self.form == Inputs.SLIDER: # Slider must have options containing min, max and optional step. if isinstance(self.options, tuple) or isinstance( self.options, list ): length = len(self.options) if length == 2 or length == 3: # All options must be integers. if not all( isinstance(item, (int, float)) for item in self.options ): raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' form options must be " "integers." ) else: raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' form must have no less than " "two, or more than three options to define the range " "of slider." ) else: raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' form must have options for min, max " "and step range of slider." ) if self.buttons: # Ensure every button is defined by a dictionary with the # expected attributes and values. for button in self.buttons: if isinstance(button, dict): # Buttons must be expressed as dictionaries. if "label" in button and "target" in button: # Buttons must contain "label" and "target" attributes. if not isinstance(button["label"], str): # Labels must be strings. raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' has a button whose " "label is not a string." ) if not ( isinstance(button["target"], str) or callable(button["target"]) ): # Targets must be strings or callables. raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' has a button whose " "target is not a string or function." ) else: raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' has a button definition " "that does not contain the expected 'label' and " "'target' keys." ) else: raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' has a button definition that is " "not expressed as a dictionary." ) if self.auto_advance and not self.auto_target: # If there's an auto_advance value, there must be a target card. raise ValueError( f"Card '{self.title}' must have a duration and target to " "auto-advance to the next card." )
[docs] def screen(self, screen_manager, data_store): """ Return a screen instance containing all the necessary UI items that have been associated with the expected event handlers. :param kivy.uix.screenmanager.ScreenManager screen_manager: The UI stack of screens which controls which card is to be displayed. :param dict data_store: A dictionary containing application state. :return: A graphical representation of the card. """ # References to app related objects. self.screen_manager = screen_manager self.data_store = data_store # The Kivy Screen instance used to draw the UI. screen = Screen(name=self.title) # Bind event handlers to life-cycle events. screen.bind(on_enter=self._enter) screen.bind(on_pre_enter=self._pre_enter) screen.bind(on_pre_leave=self._leave) # The main layout that defines how UI elements are drawn. self.layout = BoxLayout(orientation="vertical") screen.add_widget(self.layout) # The sound player for this card. self.player = None # Text font size for the Screen instance. self.font_size = "{}sp".format(self.text_size) if self.form: self._draw_form() elif self.text: self._draw_text() else: # For padding purposes. self.layout.add_widget(Label(text=" ")) if self.sound: self.player = SoundLoader.load(self.sound) self.player.loop = self.sound_repeat if self.background: self.layout.bind(size=self._update_rect, pos=self._update_rect) with self.layout.canvas.before: if isinstance(self.background, tuple): Color(*self.background) self.rect = Rectangle( size=self.layout.size, pos=self.layout.pos ) else: self.rect = Rectangle( source=self.background, size=self.layout.size, pos=self.layout.pos, ) if self.buttons: self._draw_buttons() return screen
def _draw_text(self): """ Encompasses the drawing of a single textual block onto the card. """ self.text_label = Label( text=self.text, font_size=self.font_size, markup=True ) self.text_label.color = list(self.text_color) self.text_label.padding = 10, 10 self.text_label.text_size = (Window.width, Window.height) self.text_label.valign = "middle" self.text_label.halign = "center" self.layout.add_widget(self.text_label) def _draw_form(self): """ Encompasses the drawing of a form with a textual label onto the card. """ inner_layout = BoxLayout(orientation="vertical") label_layout = BoxLayout(orientation="vertical", size_hint=(1, 0.2)) self.form_label = Label( text=self.text, font_size=self.font_size, markup=True ) self.form_label.color = list(self.text_color) self.form_label.valign = "top" self.form_label.halign = "left" label_layout.add_widget(self.form_label) form_layout = BoxLayout(orientation="vertical") form_layout.padding = 10 filler = None if self.form == Inputs.TEXTBOX: self.textbox = TextInput(text="", multiline=False) self.textbox.font_size = self.font_size form_layout.size_hint = (1, 0.2) form_layout.add_widget(self.textbox) filler = BoxLayout(orientation="vertical", size_hint=(1, 0.6)) elif self.form == Inputs.TEXTAREA: self.textarea = TextInput(text="") self.textarea.font_size = self.font_size form_layout.add_widget(self.textarea) elif self.form == Inputs.MULTICHOICE: self.multichoice = [] for item in self.options: button = ToggleButton(text=item) button.font_size = self.font_size form_layout.add_widget(button) self.multichoice.append(button) elif self.form == Inputs.SELECT: self.select = [] for item in self.options: button = ToggleButton(text=item, group=self.title) button.font_size = self.font_size form_layout.add_widget(button) self.select.append(button) elif self.form == Inputs.SLIDER: min_val = self.options[0] max_val = self.options[1] if len(self.options) == 3: step = self.options[2] else: step = 1 self.slider = Slider( value_track=True, min=min_val, max=max_val, step=step ) self.slider_label = Label(text="0", font_size=64) self.slider.bind(value=self._slider_change) form_layout.add_widget(self.slider) form_layout.add_widget(self.slider_label) inner_layout.add_widget(label_layout) inner_layout.add_widget(form_layout) if filler: inner_layout.add_widget(filler) self.layout.add_widget(inner_layout) def _draw_buttons(self): """ Encompasses the drawing of buttons onto the card. """ button_layout = BoxLayout(orientation="horizontal", size_hint=(1, 0.2)) for button in self.buttons: b = Button(text=button["label"]) b.bind(on_press=self._button_click(button["target"])) if "text_size" in button: b.font_size = button["text_size"] else: b.font_size = 24 if "text_color" in button: b.color = palette(button["text_color"]) else: b.color = palette("white") if "background_color" in button: b.background_color = palette(button["background_color"]) else: b.background_color = palette("grey") self.button_widgets.append(b) button_layout.add_widget(b) self.layout.add_widget(button_layout)
[docs] def form_value(self): """ Return the value obtained from the user via the form associated with this card. Return None if no form is specified. :return: The value currently set for this card's form. """ if self.form and self.layout: # There must be rendered form widgets. if self.form == Inputs.TEXTBOX: return self.textbox.text elif self.form == Inputs.TEXTAREA: return self.textarea.text elif self.form == Inputs.MULTICHOICE: return [ toggle.text for toggle in self.multichoice if toggle.state == "down" ] elif self.form == Inputs.SELECT: for button in self.select: if button.state == "down": return button.text return None elif self.form == Inputs.SLIDER: return float(self.slider_label.text) else: return None
def _pre_enter(self, card): """ Called immediately before the card is displayed to the user. Ensure that all the UI elements containing textual values are formatted with values from the data_store dictionary. """ if self.form: self.form_label.text = self.text.format(**self.data_store) elif self.text: self.text_label.text = self.text.format(**self.data_store) for i in range(len(self.button_widgets)): self.button_widgets[i].text = self.buttons[i]["label"].format( **self.data_store ) def _enter(self, card): """ Called when the card is displayed to the user. Ensure that any sound associated with the card starts to play and, if necessary, auto_advance is scheduled. """ if self.player: self.player.play() self.player.seek(0) if self.auto_advance: self.auto_event = Clock.schedule_once( self._next_card, self.auto_advance ) def _leave(self, card): """ Called when the card is hidden from the user. Ensure that any sound associated with the card is stopped. """ if self.player: self.player.stop() if self.auto_event: self.auto_event.cancel() self.auto_event = None def _update_rect(self, instance, value): """ Ensure that the rectangle (containing the background image, if set) is resized if the application is resized. """ self.rect.pos = instance.pos self.rect.size = instance.size def _button_click(self, target): """ Return a callable to handle a button click that correctly transitions to the next card given the value of the target argument. If target is a string, transition to the card identified by that string. If target is a callable, call the function and transition to the card identified by the string result. """ def on_click(button): if callable(target): next_card = target(self.data_store, self.form_value()) else: next_card = target self.screen_manager.current = next_card return on_click def _slider_change(self, slider, value): """ An event handler to ensure the slider's label always displays the current slider value. """ self.slider_label.text = str(float(value)) def _next_card(self, time_taken): """ Transition to the next card according to the value of auto_target. If auto_target is a string, transition to the card identified by that string. If auto_target is a callable, call the function and transition to the card identified by the string result. """ if callable(self.auto_target): next_card = self.auto_target(self.data_store, self.form_value()) else: next_card = self.auto_target self.screen_manager.current = next_card
[docs]class CardApp(App): """ An app with more than a passing resemblance to HyperCard stacks. :-) :param str name: The name of the application. :param dict data_store: The dictionary to use as the data store. :param list stack: A list of Card instances defining the default stack. """ def __init__( self, name="A PyperCard Application :-)", data_store=None, stack=None ): """ Setup with a clean state. """ super().__init__() # A simple key/value store for application state / data. if data_store is None: self.data_store = {} else: # User supplied dict allows for default states. self.data_store = data_store # Define the nature and duration of the transition between cards. transition = FadeTransition() transition.duration = 0.1 # The screen manager containing all the screens that make up the stack # of cards. self.screen_manager = ScreenManager(transition=transition) # Contains the card objects which drive the application. self.cards = {} # Populate with the default stack (if it exists) if stack: for card in stack: self.add_card(card) # Set the window title to the app's name. self.title = name
[docs] def add_card(self, card): """ Given a card instance, add it to the application. :param Card card: The card instance to add to the application's stack. :raises ValueError: if the card's title attribute isn't unique. """ if card.title in self.cards: raise ValueError( f"A card with the title '{card.title}` already exists." ) self.cards[card.title] = card screen = card.screen(self.screen_manager, self.data_store) self.screen_manager.add_widget(screen)
[docs] def load(self, filename): """ Load and instantiate a stack of cards from the referenced JSON file. :param str filename: The path to the JSON file to load as the application's stack. """ with open(filename) as f: stack = json.load(f) for card in stack: new_card = Card(**card) self.add_card(new_card)
[docs] def build(self): """ Called by Kivy to display something (in this case the screen manager containing all the screens associated with each card). :return: The screen manager object containing the stack of cards. """ return self.screen_manager